Saturday, December 8, 2012

Schizophrenia: Psychotic Disorders

Psychotic Disorders
Schizophrenia is the descriptive term for a group of psychotic disorders characterized by gross distortions of reality; with-drawal from social interaction, and the disorganization and fragmentation of perception, thought and emotion. These disorders are a prominent part of the category of mental disorders knows as psychotic disorders.  A psychotic disorder may also include disorganized speech and behavior.

People with schizophrenia disorders hear voices that are not there, speak a language others don’t understand, laugh when others see nothing humorous, and seem to lose touch with the real world. The major characteristics of schizophrenia disorder include specific patterns of thought content and the form or the structure in which thoughts are expressed. Schizophrenia occurs in all societies, although schizophrenia disorders sometimes occur during childhood or old age, about three-fourths of all first admissions are between the age of 15 and 45, with a median age of just over 30. The incidence rate is about the same for males and females. Because of its complexity, its high rate of incidence, especially during the most productive years of life, and its tendency to recur and/or become chronic, schizophrenia is considered one of the most serious of all psychotic disorders as one of the most baffling.

Changes in behavior can be noted before the active psychotic phase, they may include such things as marked social isolation and withdrawal; impairment in functioning in a previous role as a worker. Student or homemaker; impairment in personal hygiene and grooming; inappropriate affect; vague, digressive speech or contactless speech; add beliefs or thinking that one has magical powers; and/or marked lack of initiative, interests or energy.

Often schizophrenia develops slowly and insidiously, thus, the early clinical picture maybe dominated by schizophrenias, gradual lack of interest in the surrounding world, excessive daydreaming, blunting of affect and inwardly inappropriate responses.

Schizophrenia SymptomatologyInitially, biofeedback researchers and practitioners reported that people could learn to increase their production of alpha brain waves, warm their hands, and lower their blood pressure – all signs of a more relaxed state. After a decade of study, researchers stepped back to assess the results and decided the initial claims for biofeedback were overblown and oversold.  Biofeedback does enable some people to influence their finger temperature and forehead muscle tension, and it can drift somewhat in reducing the intensity of migraine headaches and chronic pain. Biofeedback works best on tension headaches, declared on 1995 National Institute of Health Panel. But other, simpler methods of relaxation, which require no expensive equipment, produce many of the same benefits. Relaxation is an important part of biofeedback and insomnia and it also suppress the immune system. Meditation relaxation counteracts all these effects, Benson reports.

General Symptomatology

  1. Paranoid
  2. Delusions
  3. Visual hallucination
  4. Eating Disorder
  5. Speech Disorder
  6. Thinking Disorder
  7. Emotional Disorder
  8. Impairment of Intelligence

Best Way to Treat Schizophrenia Social Support:

Relationships are often fraught with stress especially in crowd living conditions lacking privacy. Even when well-meaning, family introversion can be stressful. Stress contributes to heart disease; hypertension and suppressed immune system.

On balance, however, close relationships more often contribute to health and happiness. For most of us, family relationships provide not only our greatest heartaches but also our greatest comfort and joy. Moreover, investigations reveal that close relationships affect health compared with those having few social ties, people are less likely to die prematurely if supported by close relationships with friends, family or fellow members of church, work etc.

schizophrenia behavior There are several possible reasons for the link between social support and health. Perhaps people with strong social ties eat better and exercise more because their partners guide and guard them into adhering to treatment regimes. Perhaps, they smoke and drink less, perhaps such relationships help us evaluate and overcome stressful events such as social rejections. Perhaps they help to bolster our self-esteem. When we are wounded by someone’s dislike or by the loss of a job, a friend's advice, assistance and reassurance may be good medicine. Close relationships also provide the opportunity to confide painful feelings.

Behavioral Coping Techniques:

We are all guilty of behaving in a way that brings stress on ourselves. We overload our schedules with too many responsibilities; we procrastinate; it all adds up to stress. There are plenty of things we can do to reduce the stressors in our lives. One method is time management: learning how to make time work for us instead of against us.

Cognitive Restructuring:

A method of reducing stresses by adjusting cognitive appraisals of stressors; clients learn to monitor and modify their self-talk and coping strategies. For e.g. try to discover something humorous about the situation or imagine creative ways to reduce or eliminate the source of stress.

Hope, this post would help you to understand about dreaded psychotic disorder.



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  3. I like the schizophrenia coverage. I just finished an infographic on schizophrenia that highlights how many people recover, and how alienating/stigmatized schizophrenia can be (but shouldn't be!). If you like it feel free to share it with your viewers.